O level Geography Notes
• Forestry is a primary profession as in the raw materials are obtained from nature i.e. Land. Other primary professions are mining, fishing, etc.
• Forests are continuous areas of land dominated by trees.
• there are two main types of forests:
• Productive forests (1/3rd of Pakistan)
• Protective forests (2/3rd of Pakistan)
• Productive forests are natural
• Protective forests are planted by man
• Productive forests have high density
• Protective forests have relatively less density as they are planted by spacing / linearly.
• Productive forests have high commercial value
• Protective forests have low commercial value
• Productive forests examples are timber for construction, etc.
• Protective forests examples are: – to prevent soil erosion, for pleasant environment, etc.
• Productive forests are planted at western and northern mountains
• Protective forests are planted on the banks of rivers and around fields.
• They reduce air pollution by absorbing pollutants like nitrogen and they provide oxygen.
• They provide natural habitat to wild life e.g. Food, nesting sites, etc.
• They prevent soil erosion as their roots hold soil and their leaves intercept rain.
• They increase the fertility of soil through decomposition of leaves.
• They reduce flooding by regulating water supply.
• They provide employment to those who work in forest departments …
• … as well as to those who work in wood – based industries
• They attract tourism due to their scenic beauty.
• One of their products are ephedra, which is used in pharmaceutical industry.
• Their products are also used in chemical industry as well like rasin for varnishes.
• They are used as raw material in wood – based industry e.g. Timber is used in construction industry, in flooring, in making cupboards, etc.
• … in furniture industry for making tables, chairs, etc.
• … in sports good industry in making bats, rackets, etc.
• … in transport industry in making wooden carts, bus bodies, boats, railway sleepers, etc.
• Wood is used in agriculture as well e.g. making agricultural implements like animal shed, fences, wooden plough, gates, etc.
• Mazri, another minor product of trees, is used in making packing material and baskets
• Contributes to GDP/GNP therefore to national income.
• Wooden pulp is used in paper industry.
• It helps to restrict imports as it fulfils local demand of timber / wood in wood – based industries therefore save foreign exchange.
• It is used as fuel for cooking / heating (both domestically and commercially)
Factors / Determinants
• If soil is alluvial, then better growth of trees e.g. Mangroves grow well in the alluvium of deltas.
• However, if the soil is thin, then less / low / stunted growth of trees e.g Alpine forests have stunted growth due to thin soil of mountain peak.
• If rainfall is high, then better growth of trees e.g. Coniferous grow well in rainy areas of Murree.
• However, if rainfall is low, then stunted growth e.g. only bushes are found in deserts due to rainfall there.
Temperature / Sunlight
• If temperature is very high or very low then low / slow growth e.g. Alpine forests in low temperature of mountain peaks and bushes in high temperature in deserts.
• However, if the temperature is warm – hot then better growth e.g. Coniferous grow well in warm temperature of mountain valleys.
Altitude / Height
• Above 4000 metres :- Alpine (only in north of Pakistan)
• Between 1000 – 4000 metres :- Coniferous (Both northern and western mountains)
• Less than 1000 metres: – Subtropical / Thorne / Dry / Scrub forest (at coastal level / sea level in Pakistan like mangroves). Grown in Potowar Plateau.
Main products are timber and firewood.
Minor products are rasin, mazri and ephedra.
Timber is used for paper, furniture, sports good industries, etc.
Firewood is used for cooking / heating
Rasin is used for varnishes
Mazri is used for making packing material and baskets
Ephedra is used for making medicines
there is an increase in demand of timber due to high population, growth of wood – based indiustries, demand abroad of sports goods, etc.
Afforestation / Forestation
Forestation / Afforestation is the planting of trees for the first time.
Deforestation is the cutting or clearing of trees and forests.
It is the replantation of seeds after their deforestation / cutting / cleaning.
Causes of Deforestation
o To grow more food crops because of growing population
o For exploration and exploitation of minerals
o For construction of infrastructure like motor ways, highways, dams, etc.
o Urbanization – that is the extension of cities due to more rural – urban migration.
o More residential areas and more commercial areas.
o Over – grazing by sheep and goats as they graze right from the bushes or grass. In a way they cause soil erosion.
o Used as fire-wood and fuel wood as less gas is available in northern areas e.g. In heating, cooking (at both domestic and commercial level)
o Demand of timber in wood – based industries e.g. Paper, sports, furniture industry, etc.
Effects of Deforestation
• No roots to hold soil and no leaves to intercept rain therefore causes soil erosion.
• Therefore loss of nutrients for agriculture
• Siltation (pollution) in reservoirs of dams
• So less production of HEP / irrigation
• More floods therefore greater destruction like loss of life, loss of livestock, crops destroyed, roads washed away, etc
• Silt is deposited on farm – land due to flooding. If fertile, then better crop next year, but if infertile, then bad quality crop.
• Low rainfall due to less transpiration.
• So low crop yield especially in barani (rain dependent) areas.
• Loss of natural habitat so loss of wild life
• Shortage of wood for being used as fuel.
• People may have to travel more to collect wood
• Loss of timber for wood based industries like sports goods industry.
• Increase in air pollution due to less oxygen in atmosphere.
• Gullying (dissection) / bad land due to soil erosion
• More landslides / landslips as no trees / roots to stop them
• Import of timber due to its shortage so loss of foreign exchange and negatively effects Balance of Trade.
• Selective cutting so that small / young trees should not be wasted.
• Heavy machinery be restricted in forest on small plants (do not cut small plants)
• Reforestation to compensate for deforestation
• Land reserved for fuel wood plantation so that expensive wood / forests can be protected for wood – based industries.
• Forestation on hill slopes which will reduce soil erosion, silting and flooding e.g. Terraced farming, contour ploughing and strip farming.
• Awareness about the benefits of trees through media, NGO’s and educational institutions.
• Nurseries for more plants.
• Forest laws be strictly implemented
• Some afforestation projects have been started e.g.:-
- Agha Khan Rural Support Program has started an afforestation project in Balochistan which has planted over 80,000 plants.
- Tarbela / Mangla project – which is planting trees on privately owned bad-lands Rechna Doab
- Afforestation Project is planting trees between River Chinab and River Ravi. Sustainable Forestry
• To ensure forests are available for future by selective cutting.
• By reforestation of trees which do not need irrigation.
• More areas of forests
• Reforestation of trees from where they have been cut down.
• Maintain forests
Long – term investment
• Because trees take many years to grow.
• Many years before financial return / start production / results are seen
• High cost of planting
• Costs during growth.
Types of trees in Pakistan
• Stunted growth due to thin soil of mountain peaks.
• Their roots spread sideways to get more nutrients
• They have upward branches to get more sunlight
• Northern Areas (Chitral,Dir,Kohistan,Gilgit baltistan)
• Used as fuel wood
• Evergreen to get benefit from short growing season
• Conical in shape to shed snow
• Thick and lathery leaves for less transpiration (water cycle)
• Need less leaves for less transpiration
• Less leaf fall provide less humus formation
• KPK (Abbottabad, Mansehra,Kohistan, Shangla, Swat)
• Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Murree
• Balouchistan , Mountains(Quetta and Kalat divisions)
• Timber for construction, furniture, sports good industries, etc
• They check flooding by regulating water supply
• Conserve soil with the help of their strong roots therefore reduce soil erosion
• Promote tourism due to their scenic beauty
• Reduce air pollution by proving oxygen and removing pollutants
• Good breeding and conserving centres for birds, wildlife.
Bela (not natural and also irrigated)
• Planted by man
• Linear plantation
• Normally high-yielding commercial hardwood species.
• Same size
• Same height
• Along River Indus and its tributeries like Chenab, Jhelum
• Reduce temperature by providing moisture to air
• Reduce erosion of bands with the help of their strong roots
• Used for shade
• Broad leaves for more sunlight
• Lathery leaves for less transpiration
• Survive in salty water as their roots filter out salts and their leaves excrete extra salts.
• Indus (Sindh) and Hub (Balochistan) delta
• Provide firewood for cooking / heating
• Timber for construction
• Leaves provide food for livestock
• Protection against tsunamies as they absorb shockwaves
• Protection of coast line from flooding
• They are beneficial for fishing industry becaue:-
1) Breeding ground for fish
2) Protect small fish from predators
3) Provide nutrients to fish
Sub-tropical / Tropical Dry / Tropical Thorn/ Rakh forests
• Small / medium in height
• Usually are rounded bushes
• They have hard wood
• They are decidious (they shed their leaves in autumn)
• They are thorny
• Punjab Plain
• Sindh plain
• Thar desert
• Kharan desert
• Potwar Plateau
• Protection from floods
• Fire wood e.g. for cooking
• Food for livestock
• They provide shade
• They reduce air pollution by providing oxygen
• Planted by man
• Linear (in line) plantation
• Equally spaced
• Same species
• Same height / age / size
• They are regularly supplied with water
• Changa Manga
• Chicha Watni
• Distrct Sahivel
• Thal desert
• Guddu barrage
• Taunsa barrage
• Promote tourism due to scenic beauty
• Provide wood for transport industry like railway sleepers, bus bodies / chasses, carts, etc.
• Firewood for domestic use
• Growing population so more need of wood (e.g. Construction of houses)
• More demand of wood in wood based industry e.g. Timber in paper, sports goods, furniture industry, etc.
• To reduce timber imports
• Too many trees are being deforested due to too many trees being cut down, so more demand of these trees to be planted.
• To replace areas where forests cannot be replanted due to soil erosion / urbanization
• To reduce water logging
• To prevent erosion of banks and slopes
O level History Note
Key Question 5: To what extent Urdu and Regional languages contributed to the cultural development of Pakistan ?
1. Why did Pakistan choose Urdu as its national language? 
One of the reasons why Urdu became the national language in Pakistan is its long history. It was widely used in the Mughal period and dates back as far as the Sultans of Delhi. In its early stages it was used by the Muslim armies and became widely spoken and understood in many parts of the subcontinent. So it was natural that such a well known and established language would be chosen.
Another reason for Urdu being chosen was its high status. Some of the finest early poets, such as Amir Khusrou wrote in Urdu and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan’s school at Aligarh became a centre for Urdu study. Many religious books, including the Quran, were translated into Urdu. So it was considered an important language with a rich literacy tradition.
Perhaps the major reason for Urdu being chosen was the fact that it was so closely associated with the Pakistan Movement. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan supported it and the Muslim League was formed not only to defend Muslims interests, but also to protect Urdu. The Quaid-e-Azam was particularly keen to promote Urdu as he saw it as a unifying force. Since Pakistan was a new country, it was very appropriate to pick a language which had played a part in unifying Muslims.
Advantage of Urdu
The Quaid-e-Azam was particularly keen to promote Urdu as he saw it as a unifying force. Since Pakistan was a new country , it was very appropriate to pick a language which had played a part in unifying Muslims.
Disadvantages of Urdu
Destruction of other languages
Language of only 8%
Urdu Bengali Controversy which lead to separation
Q.Why have Regional languages been promoted by Pakistan since 1947? 
Urdu was promoted because it was the language of Muslims. It united the Muslims of India in those times and was also chosen as the national language of Pakistan. More development was taken in it so that more people could have knowledge in it and promote it.
Sindhi was also promoted because it played a major role in literature. It was felt that the ork of the people should be kept alive and not forgotten. The work and poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and Sachal Sarmast was to be preserved. The government made Sindhiology department in University of Jamshoru. Sarmast Academy was setup to promote Sindhi language.
Balochi language was promoted so that the people dont forget it and due to the work and poetry of people like Jam Darang. His works were great. Radio pakistan promoted it by broadcasting in Balochi. Newspapers and Books were published in Balochi language to promote it at national levels.
Punjabi was promoted because it contained many influential things like poetry and other works of Bullhe Shah’s Kalam. It was thought that his work should be protected for future generations and save it
Pushto was promoted because it played a major role by Sahibzada Abdul Qayum in the independence of Muslims. It made people stand up for their rights. University of Peshawar supported it and books were written in Pushto.
So that is why Regional languages been promoted by the Pakistan government.
3. `The promotion of regional languages in Pakistan between 1947 and 1988 has been more successful than the promotion of Urdu.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. 
Urdu is very important for all Pakistanis and it has been considered to be the
language of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Movement throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation. The Hindi-Urdu Controversy Sir Syed supported Urdu as official language for the Muslims and India.
Sindhi is the language older than Urdu it was used by number of famous poets. It is very popular in Sindhi province. Sindhi was written in ‘Marwari’ and ‘Arz Nagari’ was of writing which was subsequently changed into Arabic. After Independence,There are many steps taken to promote Sindhi. The Sindhi Literary Board was set up in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. Several important books are written in Sindhi. It is used in school but it is not the medium of instructions in schools. Government is also trying to promote this language. One of the famous person is Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and Sachal Sarmast. Sarmast Academy was also setup in Sindh. The government made Sindhiology department in Univeristy of Jamshoru.
Balochi is the language which is spoken by the largest province of Pakistan which is Balochistan. Language was brought here by tribes who migrated here. There are several Balochi poets. It was first discovered outside the province in 1830 when a British traveler was traveling. There was a decline in the language but government has made Radio Pakistan Karachi to do broad cast in Balochi. There are several magazines written and Quetta Television broadcast Balochi shows. There is now promoted rapidly increase in the language and is used by many poets.
Punjabi is the local language of the Punjab. It was a popular language amongst the Sufi poets who used it for their romantic folk poetry. It is also spoken in Abad Kashmir and the NWFP. It is easily understood by everyone and is also considered very old language. It has a long history and is written in “Gurmukhi script” and there are several dialects of this language. This language is used by singers and there are many songs in this language. There are novels, short stories, and Dramas in Punjabi and there are also books published in this language as Law, Medicine. The Punjabi Literature is taught in many educational places. These poems contributed greatly to the popularity of Punjabi. After Independence, steps were taken for the promotion and development of the language in other parts of the province. The Government have ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it for example in University of Punjab. Punjabi is now taught at Masters level. Some important works,poets and people include Bullhe Shah for his ‘Kalam’. Some famous works include of various people are Heer-Ranjha and Sassi Pannu.
Pushto is the language of people of KPK and the northern areas of Balochistan. It is influenced by Greek, Persian and Arabic. It had a great history and is one of the oldest languages of Pakistan. Pashto literature plays an important role in opposition to British rule and movement towards independence. Study in Pashto helped foster unity and the language became freedom movement for KPK. Within three years after independence Peshawar University was established to promote the language.
But still agree that Urdu was the most promoted because it was the national language of the Pakistan and the Muslims because it united the Muslims under one point and made them fight for their separate country which led to making of Pakistan and also because its been promoted more than others.